As of today, the S&P 500 is expected to report earnings growth of 3.2% for the fourth quarter. What is the likelihood the index will report an actual earnings increase of 3.2% for the quarter?
Based on the average change in earnings growth due to companies reporting actual earnings above estimated earnings, it is likely the index will report earnings growth of more than 3.2% for the fourth quarter.
When companies in the S&P 500 report actual earnings above estimates during an earnings season, the overall earnings growth rate for the index increases because the higher actual EPS numbers replace the lower estimated EPS numbers in the calculation of the growth rate. For example, if a company is projected to report EPS of $1.05 compared to year-ago EPS of $1.00, the company is projected to report earnings growth of 5%. If the company reports actual EPS of $1.10 (a $0.05 upside earnings surprise compared to the estimate), the actual earnings growth for the company for the quarter is now 10%, five percentage points above the estimated growth rate (10%-5%=5%).
Over the past five years on average, actual earnings reported by S&P 500 companies have exceeded estimated earnings by 4.5%. During this same time frame, 67% of companies in the S&P 500 have reported actual EPS above the mean EPS estimates on average. As a result, from the end of the quarter through the end of the earnings season, the earnings growth rate has typically increased by 3.1 percentage points on average (over the past five years) due to the number and magnitude of upside earnings surprises.
If this average increase is applied to the estimated earnings growth rate at the end of Q4 (December 31) of 3.0%, the actual earnings growth rate for the quarter would be 6.1% (3.0%+3.1%=6.1%). If the index does report growth of 6.1% in earnings for Q4 2016, it will mark the highest earnings growth reported by the S&P 500 since Q3 2014 (8.3%).