Featured Image

Mauna Loa and PPM: Analyzing the Latest Data


By Tom Abrams, CFA  |  June 16, 2022

There are dozens of locations around the world where atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) levels are recorded and tracked. One of the most well-known measuring sites for carbon dioxide (CO2) is the National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration’s (NOAA’s) Mauna Loa location. Published measurements from the site, collected over the past few decades, have shown a steady increase in atmospheric CO2.

Connecting History with Recent Data from Mauna Loa

Mauna Loa’s data for May, which is usually the seasonal peak for the year, is now in hand and indeed set a new record. NOAA’s website also includes information on other GHG levels, such as methane, nitrous oxide, and sulfur hexafluoride.



Coupled with multiple sets of research done to analyze ancient GHG levels, NOAA has stitched together how the more recent trend connects to the very long history of atmospheric greenhouse gas levels shown below. Yes, CO2 levels have cycled over time, but the graph’s extension during the past few decades is clearly extra-cyclical relative to history. Major variables thought to have driven the increase in atmospheric CO2 revolve around the Industrial Age and include meaningful population growth and the vast expansion in the use of fossil fuels, namely for power use and transportation.


The 1.5 degrees Centigrade (~3 degrees F) global warming increase that is often quoted as a desired limit of increase is directly linked to a ppm (part per million) level of GHGs in the atmosphere.

Suppose scientists come up with an estimate that 60 more ppm is linked to a global temperature increase of 1.5 degrees C. If we increased annually by 3 ppm for 10 years, 2 ppm for the following 10 years, and 1 ppm for 10 years before getting to no increase thereafter, then we would have 30 years before reaching the level of ppm where the 1.5-degree increase would be anticipated.

However, if GHGs in the atmosphere grew by 3 ppm per year with no decline, then we would reach the implied 1.5 degree increase level in 20 years with expectations of higher temperature changes thereafter, given the trend in CO2 ppm increases.

Tracking the rate of increase would seem to be key for tracking global progress toward zero CO2 increases. The chart below does just that and shows the year-over-year increase in CO2 ppm in blue with a 12-month moving average in red.


Factors Behind the Recent Deceleration in CO2 Increases

The past two years show a slight deceleration in the rate of CO2 increases. While this could be encouraging, it should not distract from three factors that will likely drive a reacceleration over the next year:

  1. The slowing of global CO2 accumulation is probably an aftereffect of the COVID-induced economic slowdown in 2020
  2. The lockdown in China over the past few months may have also led to a temporary decrease in CO2 emissions
  3. There appears to be a three-to-five-year cycle in the rates of acceleration and deceleration in which we may be at the end of a slowing phase


A reversal in these three factors might be enough to cause a reacceleration in the rate of increase over the next couple of years. Of course, this could be offset by CO2 emission reductions; however, efforts to date don’t seem to be significant enough yet to change the trajectory. It remains to be seen. If we were to experience a global recession, it might temper emission rates and give more time for CO2 reduction and elimination efforts to have more of an impact but that, of course, would bring other issues.

This article was originally published on the BTU Analytics website.

This blog post is for informational purposes only. The information contained in this blog post is not legal, tax, or investment advice. FactSet does not endorse or recommend any investments and assumes no liability for any consequence relating directly or indirectly to any action or inaction taken based on the information contained in this article.

New call-to-action

Tom Abrams, CFA

Associate Director, Deep Sector Content

Mr. Tom Abrams is the Associate Director for deep sector content at FactSet. In this role, he is responsible for integrating additional energy data onto the FactSet workstation, including drilling, production, cost, regulatory, and price information. Prior, he spent over 30 years working at sell- and buy-side firms, most recently as the sell-side midstream analyst at Morgan Stanley. He also held positions at Columbia Management, Dreyfus, Credit Suisse First Boston, Oppenheimer, and Lord Abbett. Mr. Abrams earned an MBA from the Cornell Graduate School of Business and holds a BA in economics from Hamilton College. He is a CFA charterholder and holds certificates in ESG investing, sustainable investments, and real estate analysis. 


The information contained in this article is not investment advice. FactSet does not endorse or recommend any investments and assumes no liability for any consequence relating directly or indirectly to any action or inaction taken based on the information contained in this article.